tribes in India
The choice of Droupadi Murmu how India’s 15thth president is rich in symbolism. She will be the first person of tribal background to hold office.
The election of Mrs. Murmu is a Milestone on the road to tribal empowerment. Her election to the country’s highest office comes 101 years after two tribesmen were elected to legislatures in colonial India.
Although the founding figures of the Republic of India were aware of the disadvantaged position of the tribesmen, they took special precautions such as the Fifth and Sixth Schedules to the ConstitutionThere has been growing concern among tribal activists about a systematic erosion of the protection afforded to the tribes, harassment police repression, and a general Intolerance of tribal autonomy by the state.
What are the essential characteristics for a community to be identified as a proposed tribe?
- According to the Lokur Committee (1965), the essential characteristics are:
- Indication of primitive properties
- Unmistakable culture
- Afraid of contact with the community in general
- Geographic Isolation
What are the basic safeguards that the Indian Constitution provides for proposed tribes?
- That Constitution of India however, makes no effort to define the term “tribe”, The term “Scheduled Tribe” was introduced into the Constitution by Article 342(i).
- It states that “the The President may, by public notice, designate the tribes or tribal communities or parts or groups within the tribes or tribal communities or parts that shall be considered Scheduled Tribes for the purposes of this Constitution.
- That Fifth Schedule of the Constitution takes care of the setup a Tribes’ Advisory Council in each of the states with incorporated territories.
- Educational and cultural protection measures:
- Article 15 paragraph 4: Special Provisions for the Advancement of Other Backward Classes (including STs)
- Article 29: Protection of Minority Interests (including STs)
- Article 46:The state takes special care to promote the educational and economic interests of the weaker ethnic groups, especially the registered castes and registered tribes, and protects them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation.
- Article 350: Right to Distinction language, writing or culture,
- Political safeguards:
- Administrative security:
- Article 275: It takes care of that Granting of special funds by the Union government to the state government to promote the welfare of Scheduled Tribes and to provide a better management.
What are the recent government initiatives for planned tribes?
What problems do the tribes in India face?
- Loss of control over natural resources: As India discovered industrialized and natural resources in tribal areas, tribal rights were undermined and state control replaced tribal control over natural resources.
- With the concepts of protected forests and national forests are gaining in importancethe Tribal members felt uprooted from their cultural roots and with no secure livelihood.
- lack of education: In tribal areas most schools lack of basic infrastructure, including Minimal study material and even minimal sanitation.
- Because the lack of an immediate economic return from educationTribal parents prefer theirs children be engage in paid work.
- Most Tribal education programs are designed in official/regional languagesthe tribal students are foreign.
- Displacement and Rehabilitation: Government acquisition of tribal lands for the development process of core sectors such as huge steel mills, energy projects and large hydroelectric dams led to Mass expulsion of the tribal population.
- The tribal bags of Chotanagpur region, Orissa, West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh suffered the most.
- That migration of these tribes to the urban areas causes mental problems for them as they cannot adapt well to urban lifestyle and values.
- Health and Nutrition Issues: Because economic backwardness and insecure livelihoods, The tribesmen face health problems such as B. the prevalence of diseases such as malaria, cholera, diarrhea and jaundice.
- gender issues: The degradation of the natural environment, particularly through the destruction of forests and a rapidly shrinking resource base, has its share Effects on the position of women.
- The opening of the tribal belt to mining, industry and commercialization has exposing indigenous men and women to the ruthless operations of the market Business, leading to consumerism and the commercialization of women.
- Erosion of identity: Increasingly the Traditional tribal institutions and laws come into conflict with modern institutions which raise fears among tribesmen about preserving their identity.
- Extinction of tribal dialects and Languages are another cause for concern as it indicates an erosion of tribal identity.
What should be done to strengthen tribes in India?
- Improvement of health facilities: Mobile medical camps to improve outreach to remote tribal peoples would play an important role.
- deployment Emergency transport for pregnant tribal women Midwifery health facilities is one of the most important necessities of tribal women.
- Health workers from tribal communities can become the link between health institutions and tribal communities to guide patients, explain medical prescriptions, Helping patients access social benefits, and advise them on preventive and health-promoting behavior.
- Food and Nutrition Facility Improvement: Large-scale opening of Mini anganwadis with much more relaxed norms and Expansion of the village grain banks Tribal areas are some of the strategies that can be used to `Reach the Unreached’ in the tribal areas.
- Employment and income generation: Employment and income opportunities should be secured for tribal areas either by wages or self-employment to increase their economic status and thus Free them from the shackles of poverty and debt.
- Management of water resources: There should be a more effective operationalization of the National water policy in tribal areas, about the expansion of irrigation systems and the provision of drinking water with a special focus on:
- Watershed management, rainwater harvesting and water saving practices
- Mass Education and Public Awareness among the rural and tribal population for effective water resource management and protection of water resources from pollution.
- Empowerment of tribal women: Effective measures should be taken to improve the lot of tribal women through:
- financial support Leading role in Joint Forest Management and Panchayati Raj Institutions
- Legal and administrative measures to curb the practice of harassment of women suspected of witchcraftalong with a massive campaign for social awareness and rehabilitation harassed women, preferably by women’s organizations.
- Involvement of the tribal population:
- Cultivation of medicinal plants: India is the world leader in the export of generic drugs. The tribe should be encouraged to work with the government to identify and collect medicinal plants from the wild and also to cultivate suitable species for their own consumption and for sale.
- Infrastructure development: The government can work with tribal groups to develop infrastructure in their local areas.
- Meghalaya is known as the living root bridge. They are grown by trained Khasi and Jaintia tribes who have mastered the art of building root bridges across elevated streams that flow through the dense forests of Meghalaya.
- Social inclusion: social exclusion Experiences of indigenous peoples are largely due to discrimination at social and institutional levels, which has led to and is increasing in their isolation, shame and humiliation Self-Exclusion Among Tribes.
- There is a strong one Need for awareness among the non-indigenous population of India to recognize the ability and dignity of tribes to ensure, that unity and integrity of the country and spirit of brotherhood.
Question about the Drishti network
Shed the status of tribal people in India. Present some solutions for their empowerment.